Souvenir History of Jackson Hole
SEVENTH AND EIGHTH GRADES OF JAGKSON
' PUBLIC SCHOOL (1923-24 )
. Under the Supervision of Their Teacher,
ROLAND W. BROWN, JR.
Dedicated to the First Explorers, Pioneers and
Early Settlers Who Have Helped Us In
Gathering Information for the Following Pages
We Are Greatly Indebted to S. N. Leek, the
First Photographer in Jackson Hole, for the
Following Pictures, Except the One of the Pupils
i ^ G. Ale kaY
This book belongs to
A d dr ess
Autograph and remarks of our party.
Copyright 1924 by
ROLAND W. BROWN, JR., Dricgs, Idaho
ACKSON HOLE — A name associated with outlaws and “Old Time
West.” A mountain locked valley, entered only by rough winding
trails, through mountain passes known only to the outlaws,
(though they are gone), and guarded by them during the summer time.
The early winter snows closing the trails till the following June. During
the winter the reflection from the glistening mountain ranges on every
side prevents the snow from accumulating in the valley, so that the
stolen horses of the outlaws and great numbers of wild game animals
may winter upon the nutritious grasses of mountain slope and meadow.
In early spring the valley takes on a carpet of green; over this are
the grazing herds of many game animals and on every side is the honk
of the nesting geese, the quack of the mating ducks; and among the
trees, now clothed with new foliage, is the chirping and song of in-
numerable birds and in the many streams the splash of the rising trout.
Above this on every side, as though to guard it from the outside world,
are the towering mountain ranges — pure white from base to summit.
Thus during early days rumor described Jackson Hole.
In a narrow sense, Jackson Hole means only that small portion of
the valley near where the outlaws’ cabin was located. In a broader
sense it means, all that portion of the Snake river drainage basin, from
the Yellowstone Park, south to the Hoback river, a region of about 3,200
square miles in extent.
The winding trails through the mountain passes are replaced by
modern highways, over which hundreds of auto parties pass back and
forth. The Forest Rangers and local people try to make them welcome.
The fertile valley land is dotted over with the buildings of the
pioneers who took homesteads and are trying to build and maintain
The elk are still in sufficient numbers, if taken care of, to more than
maintain the great herds. Nearly all other game is fairly plentiful.
The mountains are just as rough and just as wild as of yore and here
during the summer the big herds of elk and other game may be seen
upon their summer range. During the winter, if severe, the elk are now
fed hay by the Federal Government and State.
The valley of Jackson Hole is more noted now than of old for its
wonderful scenic beauty, its many rivers and lakes, its pleasant summer
weather, its excellent trout fishing, its beautiful camping places and
abundance of wild animal, bird and fish life.
This frontier country, filled with overwhelming bigness, awe, wonder
and fascinating romance is not without its history.
Following are some of the interesting events that have been gathered
from the first pioneers and settlers of this Valley.
Peaks, Dead Mans Bar and Snake River running through Jackson Valley
Where Old Snake River Flows
The following lines were written by Arthur W. Stephens, an ex-
forest ranger from Kearney, Nebraska, and S. N. Leek, a photographer
and writer of Jackson Hole.
Oh take me back out West again,
Where Old Snake River flows,
Across the flats of Jackson Hole, '
Where the gray green sage brush grows.
I want to see the rapids,
And the riffles flashing white,
I want to see the quiet pools.
Where big trout hide from sight.
I want to see the canyons deep.
Thru which the waters pour.
With lofty cliffs that tower above
And echo back the roar. )
I want to taste the water.
That is pure, and sweet, and clear.
And roam within forests.
Where are bear, and moose, and dear.
I want to see the Tetons,
Where the rushing waters head,
The auiet lakes below them.
And the creeks by which they’re fed.
I want to see the fields of snow.
That moisten the arid plain,
I want to see the meadows wide.
And the fields of growing grain.
I want to see the foot-hills.
Where a thousand cattle graze.
With white mountains in the distance.
All a shining in the haze.
I want to see the higher hills.
And the herds of elk that pasture there,
I want to see the flowers and birds.
That brighten a landscape wondrous fair.
I want to sit in camp at night.
Within the fire’s cheerful glow,
I want to hear the coyote’s howling cry,
And horse bells ringing clear and slow.
And when I hit that unblazed trail.
Across the Great Divide,
Grant that my resting place may be.
By Old Snake River’s side
The music of it’s waters there.
Will soothe my last long sleep.
And towering cliffs above my bed,
Tlieir silent vigils keep.
Jenney Lake and Teton Peaks
As early as 1865 Tim Hibbard came to Jackson Hole and camped
all one winter near the east side of the present Snake River bridge,
which was called Hibbard Lake and Flat, now the Ely ranch. The lake
has been drained and the bed is now farmed. There were a great many
buffalo heads and quite a number of arrow heads, chipped out of flint
by the Indians who had hunted buffalo in the early days, lying about
At the mouth of Flat Creek, now the Scott ranch, members of the
American Fur Company, and the Hudson Bay Company used this place
as headquarters for camp supplies.
James Goodland and Dave Brackenhridge were trappers before
1884 in Jackson Hole.
The first white people to settle in Jackson Hole came in the year of
1884. John Carnes, one of the first settlers, had an Indian wife.
In 1885 R. E. Miler settled in Jackson Hole.
About this time some early trappers, namely; Lorenzo Bebee, and
Carrol Tompson built a round log cabin on the present Schofield ranch.
In 1886 Michell Dipwater, John Dicks, “Shorty” Hoskins and
“Sandy” Marshel stayed in the Valley.
In 1887 William Crawford, John Cherry, Dick Turpin (whose ranch
is up Grovont canyon) and John Jackson settled in the country.
In 1888 there were eighteen people living in Jackson Hole. There
being seventeen men and the Indian wife of John Games.
In 1889 S. N. Leek, Sellar Gheney, Brig Adams, Ed. Blair, Irvin
Wilson and Sylvester Wilson settled in this part of the country. At
that time, there were sixty-four people located in Jackson Hole.
Jackson Hole and the near surrounding country has been the last
range for the elk and other large game, after their natural range having
been taken from them. Their natural range was the more open plains
where they could shift for themselves during the severe winters. As the
country became more settled, by the white people, they drifted toward
the mountains, or mainly in the unsettled Jackson Hole country. In the
winter of 1889 and 1890, owing to the severe winter, nearly half of the
great herd of elk died from starvation.
Aldiough the buffalo, antelope and deer have beeome more or less
extinct there is still quite a few mountain sheej), moose and elk — the
moose and mountain sheep increasing within the last few years.
The elk herd, which was and still is the largest herd of wild game
are being fed hay during the most severe months of the winter by the
Lnited States Government and state of Wyoming.
Th is herd of elk is estimated to be about 9,000 head.
Grovont Mountains and Elk Up Cachse Creek in Winter
First White Children Born in the Valley — Miss Effie Wilson, now
Mrs. Earl Simpson, was the first white girl born (March 17, 1891) in
Jackson Valley and Howard Cheney was the first white boy born (June
Hayseed — John Holland had the first garden in the year of 1891. The
first hayseed raised in Jackson Hole was gathered by the first school
teacher, Mr. Henry Johnson, from hay grown on Ervin Wilson’s ranch.
Outlaws — The last trouble with the outlaws was in 1892 when two of
them were killed. These outlaws were horse thieves, who had been
stealing horses and were driving them through the valley, picking up
horses as they went through Jackson Hole. During the winter of 1892
the horse thieves wintered a band of horses in the valley. It was in the
spring that the settlers had trouble with the horse thieves, or outlaws,
as they tried to drive away horses belonging to the settlers.
Among the First
Ferryboat — William Meaner had the first ferryboat across the Snake
River. He installed it in 1895 about fourteen miles above where the
large steel bridge is now located. The ferry is still being operated.
Brickyard — The first brickyard was started by Jim Parker and Mullon.
They made the brick for the different brick buildings in Jackson. The
lime-kiln was just west of Jackson.
“Dude” Ranches — The first attempt to start a “dude”, or tourist, ranch
was by Harvey K. Glyden, stepfather of the actress, Maude Adams.
The first “dude” ranch was owned by S. N. Leek. “Cap” Smith and
Ben Sheffield were the next parties to start tourist ranches. Sheffield’s
ranch, or Teton Lodge is located at Moran, Wyoming, near Snake River,
where Jackson Lake empties into the river. This ranch is located at the
junction of the three roads leading to the southern entrance of the
Yellowstone National Park. These roads are: Twogwotee Pass, Ho-
back Canyon road and Teton Pass road.
The J. Y. ranch is located on Phelph’s Lake, it being the next tour-
ist resort started in the Valley. It was started about the year of 1907
The Bar B. C. ranch was started by M. S. Burt and Dr. Corncross in
1912. It is located on the west bank of Snake River, three miles north
of the Meaner ferry ranch. Since then there have been several smaller
“dude” ranches started in the valley.
Amoretti Inn, one of the latest and largest of the tourist resorts, is
located one mile north of Teton lodge, overlooking the east shore of
Ml Moran and Jackson Lake
Jackson Lake at the junction of the three roads to the southern entrance
of the Park.
jFiRST Drug Store — The first drug store was built by E. C. Steele.
Part of the building was used for his home.
About 1913, James Simpson started a Drug Store in Jackson. At
this time he was running a drug store at St. Anthony, Idaho, starting a
branch store in Jackson. The store was located in the Jackson Club
house, owned then by Mrs. T. W. Lloyd and James Simpson. Jimmy
Simpson sold the drug store to Bruce Porter, the present owner, about
Jackson State Bank — The bank was founded August 19, 1914. Mr.
Miller was the first president and Mr. Harry Wagner was the first cash-
ier. The first board of directors were, Robert E. Miller, Hyrum W.
Deloney, Frank S. Wood, John H. Wilson, T. W. Lloyd, 0. F. Stewart,
C. L. Brady, P. C. Hansen and Harry Wagner.
The First Hotel — Mrs. John Anderson ran the first hotel in Jaekson
Hole. It being a house on Antelope Pass at first. This was moved to
the present sight of the Jackson Hotel in the year of 1901. It was after-
ward enlarged and covered with brick as it appears at present.
The Churches — The Mormon, (Latter-Day-Saint), church was the
first built in Jackson Hole, in 1905, by Parker and Mullins, carpenters.
The cost of the building was $3,000. About $2,500 was donated by
the fourteen Mormon families living in the valley at that time. The
balance of the money was given by the church.
The Episcopal Church, Clubroom and Hospital — The Episcopal
church was started in 1915 and finished in 1916. St. John’s hospital
was finished in the same year. It is the only log hospital on record. It
is very well equipped. The hospital was built partly by subscriptions
— the church finishing the building and keeping it in repair.
The Resthouse was started in 1912, being finished in 1913. It has
a nice library, reading room, gymnasium and fireplace.
The Baptist Church — The Baptist ehurch was built in 1912 under the
supervision of Mr. Baxter, then the Baptist missionary in charge of the
church at that time. A small portion of the money was donated by the
people but most of it came from the American Baptist Publication So-
First Car — The first car, a Cadillac, was brought into Jackson Hole in
1910 by William Dunn.
Radio — The first radio was brought into Jackson by Harold Sheard in
Telephone — The first telephone in Jackson was brought into the coun-
try by Fred Lovejoy. It was in the early spring of 1905. The two first
telephones were connected up between the Jackson Hotel and Mose Gilt-
ner’s ranch, which is about three miles west of Jackson.
Mt. Moran — Mt. Moran was named after an artist who painted the
Tetons and Mt. Moran. The elevation of Mt. Moran is 12,100 feet.
Monger Mountain — Munger mountain is located in the southern part
of Jackson Hole. This mountain was named after a prospector who
m,ined at the foot of the mountain for gold.
Store — The first store in Jackson Hole was run by Charles De Loney
Sr., a Civil War veteran, in 1899. At that time Mr. DeLoney could
stand on the steps of his store and see nearly any kind of wild game but
not any houses.
Funeral — ^The first funeral services held in Jackson were those of Jim
Goe. The services were held in DeLoney’s store, as there were not any
churches or public meeting house at that time. Jim Goe was also the
first man buried in the Jackson cemetery.
Typewriter — The first typewriter, an old style Oliver, was brought
into the valley by Charlie Lee.
Livery Barn — The first livery barn was built across the corner from
De Loney’s old store building. It was built by setting posts up with
boards thrown over the tops of the posts. Hay was then thrown over
The first winter a bear decided to hibernate in the hay during the
cold weather. He was finally discovered by some men while pitching
the hay off from the bam. They dragged him around in the snow, but
it being about forty below zero, Mr. Bear was too stiff and cold to put
up much of a fight.
Wagons — The first wagon was brought into Jackson by John Carnes and
John Holland. They came from Green River by way of Bacon Creek
and down the Grovont River, in the year of 1884.
The first wagon driven over the Teton Pass belonged to R. E. Miller.
It was brought over in 1885. The first buggy or buckboard was
brought over the Pass in 1894.
Sawmill — The first sawmill was a water power mill, brought into Jack-
son Valley from Market Lake, Idaho, 1893, by S. N. Leek. John Wil-
son assisted him in hauling it in. Ed. Blair helped to set the mill up on
Mill Creek, on the west side of Snake River, above Wilson.
Page T welve
ViCTROLA — S. N. Leek had the first Victrola, or gramaphone in Jackson
Hole. The machine was presented to Mr. Leek by the editor of the
“Recreation” magazine, for a gift for his writings about Jackson Hole.
Naming of the Tetons — The Tetons were called Pilot Knobs at first.
In 1818 they were called Trios Tetons, (meaning three or Woman’s
Breast in French). The Indians called them Tee-win-at, meaning three
Sheep — About 1896 there was a sheep war between the settlers and
people wishing to bring sheep into the valley. During this time there
were about two hundred sheep killed. There was an agreement made
among the early settlers not to allow sheep in Jackson Hole on account
of the valley being too small to run sheep and cattle both. Then too,
the sheep would run all of the wild game out of the country besides the
ranges would all be ruined.
Until recently there have not been any sheep in the valley. Some
of the settlers are starting the sheep industry at present. They have to
keep the sheep on their own ranches. They are not given permits to
graze them on the forest reserve or game preserve lands.
Fire — In 1889 a fire burned tbe greater part of the forests surrounding
Jackson and Teton Valleys. The settlers volunteered to fight the fires.
Valley Surveyed — During the years of 1892-1893 the valley was sur-
veyed by Billy Owen and associates.
“Dead Man’s Bar” — Considerable excitement prevailed over the pos-
sibility of finding gold in paying quantities and in 1879 a party of
prospectors entered the valley. So certain were they of success, that
they undertook to dig a Water way from Ditch Creek to Snake River, a
distance of six miles and doing all the excavating with ordinary miner’s
Some trouble arose and three of the miners were killed and later
buried on the bar where they had been working, giving to the bar the
name, “Dead Man’s Bar.”
Tusk Hunters Ordered Out — During the early days there were those
who made it a business to kill elk for their teeth, as the tusks of the
elk are quite valuable, sometimes killing a great many elk in one day.
In 1908 the settlers ordered the tusk hunters out of the country,
giving them a very short time to get out. They left without losing much
time. Since that time there has not been as much of this work going on.
The Elk Were First Fed — In the winter of 1908-1909 the elk were
first fed by the settlers of Jackson Hole. Since dien the state of Wyom-
ing, with the help of the United States Government, have been feeding
them each severe winter.
Going on the Hunt
Riding Plow — The first riding plow was brought into the valley by
Sylvester Wilson. It is now at the Elias Wilson ranch.
First Stove — The first stove was brought to Jackson Hole on a pack
horse by R. E. Miller.
First House — The first house was built of logs by the outlaws, or horse
thieves, on the old Miller ranch northeast of Jackson, on what is now
known as the Government ranch. The Government authorities bought
this ranch and three or four more for the purpose of raising hay to feed
the elk and for a winter pasture for them.
Blacksmith Shop — The first blacksmith shop was run by L. C. Edmon-
son at Wilson and later a shop was built by Link Imeson at Jackson.
Those who ran blacksmith shops later were James Vogel, Otto Lumbeck
and his father and a Mr. Smith. The shop is now run by Brown and
Music for the First Dances — Peter Karns and Richard Mayor used
to play for the first dances. They took turns playing for dances. Oc-
casionally there was someone who would chord with them on the organ
which helped a great deal.
People used to come from all parts of the valley on skiis to attend a
dance, making it an all-night party, returning home the next day.
James Boyle, a resident of the valley, still has the old violin that
used to belong to Pete Karns.
First Band — The first band was started in Jackson about 1904. Dr.
Melton was the director. They had a very good band, consisting of
about twenty-two pieces. They used to go to different towns in Idaho to
play for celebrations.
Moving Pictures — Mr. Fred Lovejoy, manager of the Jackson Valley
Telephone Co., with the help of Mr. S. N. Leek established the first
moving picture show in the I. 0. 0. F. hall.
They planned to get the best possible films from Salt Lake City.
The first show was produced March 21, 1919.
The First Chautauqua — The first Ellison-White chautauqua to be
given in Jackson valley was during July 17th to 21st, 1921. They gave
a program at Driggs, Idaho, then coming over the Teton Pass to Jack-
son. The people in the valley have made it possible to have a Chautau-
qua each year since that time. It has been attended each year by a
large crowd of people.
Courier — The Jackson Hole Courier was first started in 1909. Mr.
Roy Van Vleck and one other party financed Mr. Douglas Rodebeck in
starting the Courier, a weekly paper.
The following men have been editors and publishers since that time:
Mr. Hoagland, Mr. Edward Hunnicutt, Mr. Richard Winger, T. H. Bax-
Elk on the Feed Ground in Winter
ter, W. G. Bunn, until his death in October, 1923. His death was caused
by falling over a cliff while hunting mountain sheep. Mr. Robert Dai-
ley has been publishing the paper since Mr. Bunn’s death.
First Airplane — The first airplane to be brought into the valley flew
over the Teton Pass from Blackfoot, Idaho. The pilot was H. H. Barker.
He brought with him Jack Winton, his mechanic. They were here
during the Frontier celebration September 1st and 2nd, 1920. They
took eighty passengers up during the two days they were here. They
returned to Blackfoot by way of the Grand Canyon of the Snake River.
Snake River Bridge
For several years after the people settled in the valley they had to
ford the Snake river going to Victor, Idaho by way of Wilson, Wyoming.
The river, during high water, is very treacherous — sometimes washing
great holes in the river bed in just a short time and often at the regular
fords. In this way it made the river very unsafe to cross. Some years
the settlers operated a ferry boat but this was not always very safe for
as the river washed new channels large trees would come rushing down
the river taking the ferry boat and approaches down the river.
In 1915 the settlers built a steel bridge. During the spring of 1917
the channel washed around the bridge, leaving it high and dry.
For months communication was maintained by swinging a crate on
pulleys and cable until the low water period when a new ferry system
was installed for the benefit of the traveling public.
Representatives were sent to lay the matter before the State High-
way Commission at Cheyenne.
Lincoln County finally pledged $20,000 and with the co-operative
money from the state and Federal Government the erection of a bridge
and adequate approaches for the same was planned.
Complicated engineering feats were necessary to insure the stability
of the bridge and it became necessary for the people to raise an addi-
tional $14,000 before construction of work would be authorized. This
money was raised by popular subscription and the river is now spanned
with a magnificent steel structure properly protected with an intricate
system of jetties, rif -raffing and embankments of earth and stone.
This five span bridge, the longest in Wyoming, is 650 feet long.
Winter Road Over Teton Pass
Mountains of Jackson Hole in July
Lakes and Mountain Peaks
Jenny lake was named after the wife of Richard Lee, known as
“Beaver Dick.” His wife was a squaw named Jenny. They camped
at Jenny lake the greater part of one summer.
Leigh’s lake was named after Richard Lee, Jenny’s husband.
Phelp’s Bradley and Tigard lakes were named after early surveyors.
Nearly all of these lakes are surrounded by forests and beautiful
scenery. Good fishing and boating are enjoyed by hundreds of people
in late years.
Robert Ray Hamilton wanted to change the name of Jackson lake to
Mary-Mer lake, naming it after Mr. Sargent’s daughter Mary, and Mer
after the perfect reflection of the Teton mountain range in the lake.
Their ranch was located on a high promontory, overlooking the lake.
They named it the Mary-Mer Ranch.
Hamilton and Sargent brought the first sail boat into Jackson Hole.
It was carried over Conat Pass by four men.
One day Mr. Hamilton decided to go antelope hunting, south of
Jackson lake, in what is known as the “pot hole” country, where the
antelope were plentiful at that time. He failed to return within a
reasonable length of time when Mr. Sargent started a searching party.
After seven days’ search Hamilton was found where he had been
drowned in Snake river. He was buried on the shores of Jackson lake.
Mr. Hamilton’s horse was found with an antelope tied on the back
of the saddle. The saddle having turned had caused the cinches to rub
the horse’s back sore.
At the present time Jackson lake is a large reservoir where the water
is retained until later in the season to be used for irrigation purposes in
Idaho. It is estimated that the million acre feet of water retained in
Jackson lake added $23,000,000 to Idaho’s crops in 1920.
Teton Pass — Prior to 1885 all provisions and supplies were brought
to Jackson Hole on pack horses.
In the fall of 1885 the first wagon came over the Teton Pass. They
wound around the timber where they could get through. When they
came to a fallen tree they would pile brush around it and drive over the
brush. It was not an easy proposition to drive a team and wagon over
this pass, because the timber was very thick and mountain sides very
steep. They had to change and put the back wheels on the lower side
of the wagon, also pile brush around to get over the fallen trees.
During the summer of 1915 the Forest Service made a grade that
now winds over the scenic mountain. At one point of the road a person
Mountain Lion and Deer in their Natural Habitation
Coyote in a Tree and a Carnprobber
can look down and count the road in seven places directly below them
where it switches back and forth making a gradual grade.
The Teton Pass road is the western entrance that leads into
Jackson Hole from Victor, Idaho, the nearest railroad point. It is
twenty-eight miles from Victor, Idaho to Jackson. It is now one of the
best mountain roads in the United States. The altitude is 8424 feet at
the highest point of the road, or 2,000 feet above the base of the moun-
tain. The grade is fourteen feet wide.
Tourists coming over this pass can readily see why this valley is
called Jackson Hole. From this road one can get a view of a greater
part of the valley, surrounded on all sides by high mountain ranges.
There are four splendid highways leading into Jackson Hole as in-
dicated on the map. Good bridges span all the streams.
Slide mountain is up Grovont canyon. It derived it’s name from the
fact that in the year of 1908 it started to crack and settle from the top.
The north half of the mountain broke away gradually settling
into the Grovont river. Great cracks appeared in the mountain so deep
that you could not see to the bottom of them. These were always chang-
ing. In some places the earth would settle down, around a portion of
land leaving it like a small mountain. Some of the trees were completely
turned upside down. The tops being buried and the roots sticking up in
the air. A great deal of the soil was of a brick red formation washing
down the Grovont river making it of a blood red color.
It was impossible to establish any kind of a road or telephone line
over the mountain for several years. The earth was always shifting posi-
tion very slowly. One day the road would be alright and the next there
would be great crevices that could not be crossed. It finally dammed off
a portion of the Grovont river, forming a medium size lake. This lake,
at certain seasons of the year, has some very good fishing in it. This
is one of the most interesting formations in this section of the west.
Another place of much interest is “Lion Rock.” This rock is located
in the red mountains up Grovont canyon. There is a cliff that looks
like a lion lying down.
TRIPS TO THE TOP OF THE GRAND TETON PEAK
The first trip to the top of the Grand Teton Peak (elevation 13,747
feet) was made in 1898 by Billy Owen, Jack Shives and Frank Peter-
son. They spent about three months trying to reach the top of the peak.
They built a rock monument and placed a flag on top of the peak. The
Hoback Road and River
party had to make a trail up the mountain by digging steps in the rock
cliffs and using ropes to pull themselves up the rock walls.
The second trip to the top of the Grand Teton peak was made by
G. Blackbern, A. R. Arrow and A. Davis on August 5th and 6th, 1923.
They made the trip in thirty-six hours from their base camp. They
followed nearly the same route that the former party took.
These men report that they found initials, a monument and the flag
that the first climbers had placed on the summit of the Grand Teton
In 1894 R. E. Miller requested William Manning, of Teton Basin,
to come to Jackson Hole and assist him in settling Indian troubles. The
Indians were illegally killing game. Mr. Manning was given full
authority over this work. He deputized necessary help, then they located
and arrested seven Indians about twenty-five miles above the mouth of
Granite Creek, on a south branch of Hoback river.
A deputy, that could talk a little Indian language, gave the Indians
an idea that they were going to hang them. The Indians tried to escape.
Orders had been given to use necessary force to prevent the Indians
from escaping, also to shoot their horses if necessary.
The Indians tried to escape on a divide between Hoback river and
Granite Creek. One fifteen year old boy and one old sick man were
killed. One Indian was shot through the body but later recovered. The
other prisoners escaped.
During the time that the Indians were making an attempt to escape,
“Amy Racehorse,” a squaw, was swept from her horse by a limb of a
tree. A papoose, she was carrying on her back was lost at the same
time but was never found. Another two-year old papoose was swept
from a horse but was later found by John Wilson and Ed. Hunter and
brought to Mr. Manning’s residence where he was cared for. Later he
was returned to his parents.
This same little Indian boy, after growing to manhood, went over-
seas and served in the World’s War. At present he is living on the
Shoshone Indian Reservation in Wyoming.
The place where the Indian fight took place is called Battle Moun-
tain, although there really was not a battle fought there. (See picture of
Authorities notified the Governor of Wyoming, with a request to
notify federal authorities and let them take what action they cared to,
though the people of Wyoming would still undertake to enforce the state
laws: This case was taken to the federal courts of Wyoming, and later
to the Supreme courts of the United States.
1. Beaver Dam, Lake and House. 2, Pack Outfit.
(Tetons in background) . 4, Moose.
3, Trout Fishing in Snake River
5, Evening Meal.
Racehorse, an Indian man, agreed to appear in court to make a
Some soldiers, from Ft. Russel, came to the country in two or three
groups, with the purpose of investigating the killing of those Indians
and to protect the settlers if needed.
General Chaffie and General Coppenger and an Indian agent, from
Fort Hall, came with the troops with the intention of trying those re-
sponsible for the killing of the Indians. Mr. Manning showed them his
authority as an officer, with the statement that he was willing to be tried
in any court of the United States.
The decision of the federal court, by Judge River, sustained the
Indians in their contention. The matter was later brought to the Su-
preme Court of the United States. Attorney General Van Orsdale,
acting for the state of Wyoming. The Supreme Court of the United
States reversed the Federal Court’s decision and sustained the state laws
of Wyoming; this making the game the property of the state and settling
the Indian and game question throughout the United States.
Jackson Hole, which is really the last of “The Old West,” still
has its Frontier Days and Roundups.
In 1910 some of the settlers organized a company staging a Frontier
Celebration September 20-21-22, 1910. They had some wonderful
shows, in that they were so real and showed more of a western spirit.
The Frontier Days Celebrations which are held in the latter part of
August or the fore part of September each year, attract hundreds of
people from every section of the United States. They usually last for
During this time they have: wild horse races, bucking contests,
Roman races, relay races, tugs of war and many other contests.
Coal Mines and Mineral Resources
In 1892 the Jackson Hole Coal Co. was formed. They located
fifty-two coal claims of 160 acres each. Coal was in sight on every
claim. The assessment for all the claims was done in one place, by a
tunnel which ran sixty feet on a fifteen-foot vein of coal. The tunnel
was dug by Dick Turpin on the south side of coal ridge, north of Slide
lake, on the Grovont river.
At that time there was not a road up to the mine, therefore, there
was not any coal hauled out. Since then the mine has been opened and
the first load of coal was brought to Jackson for Mr. Harry Wagner in
Page Twenty- five
The first mine to furnish good coal was opened up on Lava Creek,
a tributary to the Buffalo river. This mine was owned by Mrs. William
Johnson of Lander, Wyoming. Coal was hauled from this mine for
the Jackson lake dam and other places in the valley.
The next mine was opened up on Cache creek and has supplied lots
of coal for Jackson people. There have been other coal mines opened
up on Buffalo river and Ditch Creek as well.
Wyoming has more coal than any other state in the Union, although
it does not mine the most. Some of the creek beds run through a good
grade of coal, indicating the enormous amount of coal in this section.
Jackson Hole is rich in other mineral resources — the gypsum on
Hoback river, the copper and graphite on Buffalo river, the ferric oxide;
giving the mountains of Grovont canyon their red color, together with
the lead, mica and glena.
With everchanging natural formations give much fascination to
those interested in geology.
Early Explorations and Settlements
With extracts from Dr. Grace Raymond Hebard’s book, ‘‘History
and Government of Wyoming,” pages 10-35-36-46.
The original country which embraces that part of Wyoming now
known as Jackson Hole (the valley being about sixty-five miles long
and ten miles wide) was acquired in 1792, by explorations made in
1805, by The Astorian Settlement in 1811, by the Florida Treaty in
1819, and by acknowledging the title by Great Britian in 1886 — em-
bracing all of Oregon, Washington and Idaho and parts of Montana and
From the year 1846 to 1868; with the building of the telegraph line.
Union Pacific railroad and other signs of civilization coming to Wyom-
ing, the people of this vast territory thought that they needed some form
of territorial government which would help them protect themselves
from the bloody Indian wars and thrilling massacres. In 1868 the
people asked Congress to admit Wyoming as a territory.
On July 25, 1868 President Johnson signed his name to a bill which
made this the territory of Wyoming.
The territorial officers were not given us until April 7, 1869.
The word Wyoming, which means “Large Plains,” comes from the
Deleware Indian name, Maughwawama.
In 1867 there were only two counties in Wyoming; Laramie and
Carter. The west half of the state was embraced in Carter county.
Uinta County was later formed. This was divided in the year 1911 into
Lincoln county. In 1923 Teton county was organized with Jackson as
the county seat. Wyoming became a state in 1890.
John Colter was with Lewis and Clark and left the party on its
return at Fort Mandan and in the fall and winter of 1806 he trapped
in Wyoming on the streams of the Big Horn and Stinking Water (now
called Shoshone river). Mr. Colter crossed into Idaho and out of the
state. He crossed into the Yellowstone Park and back to the point
where he entered the state. He carried some wonderful tales to Clark
when he returned which were not believed at the time. He told of the
marvelous Yellowstone which he found in 1807. Colter is not only the
discoverer of the Yellowstone Park but the first white man to enter
PACIFIC FUR CO
In 1811 the Pacific Fur Co., under John Jacob Astor sent an ex-
pedition into the mountains. They crossed the Big Horn Mountains,
going up the Big Horn River, then to Wind River through what is known
as the Shoshone Indian Reservation, near Union Pass. There they
sighted the three snowy peaks of the Grand Teton mountains and named
them “Pilot Knobs.” They then traveled down Hoback river, north along
the Snake river, turning west and leaving the valley going over the Teton
Pass. These people were the original pathfinders of the present splen-
did auto road over Teton pass and down Hoback canyon.
In 1828 William Sublett discovered Jackson lake, which is south of
Yellowstone Park. He named the valley Jackson Hole after his friend,
David Jackson, who was exploring at that time.
Bonival explored in Wyoming in 1834 coming down the Hoback
canyon. While with Bonival, Hoback took sick and died, Hoback
canyon is named after him.
THE WHETSTONE MINING PROJECT
In 1896 Captain Harris interested eastern capitalists to finance a
mining project on Whetstone creek, a tributary of Pacific creek.
They brought a mining outfit in; including a saw-mill, a ton of
quicksilver, wheescrapers and a complete ferry boat and cable to cross
Snake river, when they came to it. They constructed the road as they
went over swamps, streams and mountains.
The mine was located on a little flat, where below they built a flume
ten feet wide and one hundred feet long, consisting of four-inch planks,
filled with three wide holes to act as riffles to catch the gold. The plan
being to haul the gravel to the mouth of the flume and the swift stream
to carry it through.
On account of finances, and the project not paying, they stopped
and the work was abandoned.
The only thing salvaged being the saw-mill and that was purchased
of the mining company by S. N. Leek.
Page Twenty -seven
Native Flowers 7, Service Berries 2, Indian Paint Brush ( W yarning Stale Flower)
3, Blue Bells 4, Sego Lily 5, Columbine 6, Wild Geranium
Page T wen ty -eight
The first Post Office in Jackson Hole was established in 1892. Mr.
Fred White was the Postmaster. They named it Marysville at first,
then later changed it to Jackson. Mr. Fred White served as Postmaster
The mail was carried into the valley first from Rexburg, Idaho and
later from Haden, Idaho and finally from Victor, Idaho.
At first the settlers took turns going for the mail. In the winter they
went on snowshoes and in summer they used packhorses to bring the
mail over the mountain.
The first Post Office building stood north of Frank Peterson’s ranch
on the school section. The mail carriers were Mr. J. L. Eynon and Mr.
Mrs. John Simpson was the second Postmaster. She had the Office
during the year of 1901. While she was in charge the Post Office was
located on the Simpson ranch, about a half mile east of Jackson.
Mrs. John Anderson was the third Postmaster. She had the Office
during the year of 1902. She again moved it, this time to a place about
a mile and a half west of Jackson.
Mrs. Sara McKean was the fourth Postmaster. She had the Post
Office from 1903 to 1920. This was really the first Post Office in
the town of Jackson.
T. H. Baxter was the fifth Postmaster. He kept the Office for one
Mr. Henry Frances was the sixth Postmaster. He also served one
year. W. E. Lloyd is the present Postmaster — taking the Office in
The other Postoffices in Jackson Hole are: Wilson, Kelly, Moran,
Elk, Grovont, Zenith, Teton, Hoback and Moose.
Flowers and Vegetation of Jackson Hole
A larger part of Jackson Hole is covered with timber. Lots of
it is valuable for commercial purposes besides being a very good water
shed. Among the varieties are: Douglas (red) fur, Englemen spruce.
Lodge Pole Pine, Balsm, Pinion Pine, Cedar, Mahogany, Cottonwood,
Quakingaspen, Rock willows, Creek willows and Tag Alder.
The wild berry producing plants are: Service Berries, Chocke
cherries. Wild currants. Wild raspberries. Gooseberries, Thimble Ber-
ries, Oregon grapes. Strawberries, and Huckleberries.
There are a great variety of flowers growing in Jackson Hole at
all elevations. The Indian Paintbrush is the Wyoming state flower.
Flax, Columbine, Motherhubbard, Bluebells, Cowslips, Moss-water lily.
Rose, Geranium, Shooting stars, Sand Lillies, Johny-Jumpups, Forget-
Page Twenty -nine
1, Broivn Trout 2, Blacktail Deer 3, Antelope 4, Moose 5, Pine Squirrel
Page Thirty 6, Antelope. 7, Mountain Sheep
me-nots, Wild roses, Violets, Lily-of-the-valley, Dandelines, Bleeding
Hearts, Monks hood. Wild hol’ly-hock, Sego lilies and many others,
grow in the country as well.
During late summer flowers can be seen growing along the edge of
a snowbank up in the mountains where the snow lays until very late
summer. In the higher mountains (quite often) one will see where
there are small glaciers and along the edge of the snow there will be
flowers growing during July and August.
The Animals, Birds and Fish of Jackson Hole
The elk, moose, deer, mountain sheep and antelope are all the big
game animals of Jackson Hole. These animals inhabit the marshes and
high timbered mountains during the summer months. During the winter
the elk come down to the Government feed ranches where they are fed
hay during the severe winter months.
During the winter of 1922-23, 15,000 elk were fed by the state of
Wyoming and the United States Government.
Until 1899 the hunting law, in Wyoming, gave all residents the
right to kill what game they needed for their own use, but not waste any
meat. It also excluded non-resident hunters from killing any game,
without first securing a non-resident’s licence. This bill was made for
the State Legislature by D. C. Nowlin and William Manning. Its pur-
pose was to exclude non-resident guides, protect the game and create a
The present game licence, of $2.50, is for identification of residents.
The other animals of Jackson Hole are: mountain lions, wolverines,
wolves, grizzly and black bears, coyotes, lynx, otter, martin, beaver,
muskrats, woodchucks, badgers, rabbits, ground squirrels, pine and fly-
ing squirrels, weasels, gophers and field mice. There are not any
snakes, except little harmless water snakes.
There are a great many varieties of birds in Jackson Hole. Those
that stay here all the year are: wild geese, wild ducks, golden eagles,
bald eagles, hawks, loons, owls, ravens, rain crow, crested or blue jay,
magpies, camprobbers, sage hens, blue grouse and pin-tail grouse.
The birds that stay here only during the summer are: sand-hill
crane, sand pipers, osprey, (king fisher) gulls, pelicans, blue herron,
night hawks, curlews, swallows, robins, meadow larks, blue birds, hum-
ming birds, yellow-headed blackbird, water onsel, teal duck, king bird,
and many other common birds of the East excepting quail. It is claimed
that there are 125 different kinds of birds that nest in Jackson Hole.
Trout fishing is excellent in the Jackson Hole country. The native
cut-throat trout come from Alaska. There are rainbow trout in many
of the streams which were planted by the Forest Service authorities.
Page Thirty -one
Conaiit trail*. Hi ere the Yirglnian
crossed The feton R
1, Golden Eagle (builds nest among rocks) 2, Chick'U-dee. 3, Owls. 4, Fish-Hawk and
Nest. 5, Camprobbers. 6, Bald Eagle (builds nest in trees). 7, Elk
Page T hirty-two
In 1892 the brown mackinac, and brook trout were planted in Lewis
lake by the United States Fish Commission. This makes Jackson Hole
one of the best game hunting and fishing sections in the world.
The Federal Forest Service of the Government is in charge of the
United States department of agriculture. Government forest work be-
gan as far back as 1876. The first forest reserves were in the Yellow-
stone Park timberland reserve. It was created by President Harrison.
Forest lands are for commercial, recreational and industrial pur-
The chief causes of fires are by careless smokers, lightning, campers
and steam sawmills.
The forest acts as a reservoir or water shed for preserving the snow
and moisture until later in the season, when it is needed for irrigation
The Yellowstone Park Timberland Reserve was created March 30th
and September 10th, 1891. Later it was called the Yellowstone Forest
Reserve. The area was increased at that time. The Teton National
Forest, which includes all of Jackson Hole, was created from the Yellow-
stone National Forest on July 1, 1908.
Charles Deloney was the first supervisor. He was appointed on
July 7, 1898.
W. Armor Thompson succeeded Mr. Deloney in 1901. Mr. R. E.
Miller succeeded Mr. Thompson in August, 1902. A. C. McCain suc-
ceeded Mr. Miller in July, 1918 and is still supervisor.
The rangers have been as follows: John J. Fisher, Ronald W. Brown,
Sr., Hugh McDermot, Henry Bircher, C. N. Woods, Charles Fisher, L.
W. Reeves, L. C. LaPlant, Emil Wolff, Donald McDonald, E. C. Car-
rington, E. E. Edgleston, Y. D. Alsop, John Eee, John Raphael, Fred
Graham, A. N. Davis, J. G. Imeson, D. S. Imeson, A. M. Austin, W. W.
Smith, Edward Romey, B. L. Colter, R. Rosencrans, Richard Old, Al-
bert Gunther, W. H. McKahan, C. S. Horel, Roy Conner, E. R. Harris,
and F. Buckenroth.
First Schools in Jackson Hole
The first school in Jackson Hole was started in 1894 at South Park,
now known as Cheney.
It was a subscription school held in one room of the old homestead
building belonging to Sylvester Wilson.
It served very well for all entertainments as dances and socials.
It was one of the first log cabins in Jackson Hole. It is still standing
there and used as a machine shed.
^ V •«;.'.;.i- • '•vfS7\i' *'*5av\- •/•
SJSC^'?}' •'^'<'>' *: •S^VsV^'S'- •
'• r L ■■*■ *
. . p/' ,i^>.
• f -'1 *^’
' 5 /."s • ••
1, Jackson J^ublic School. 2, First Lo^ Ranch House, with a Board Floor, Built in 1885
hy John Carnes. 3, First School House Built in Jackson Hole (Pupils Skiis Used
in Coining to School). 4, St. John Hospital (Built of Logs)
Henry Johnson was the first teacher. There were twelve white chil-
dren and one Indian boy.
They had spelling tests and the children spelled against their
parents. Each father built a bench and desk for his children.
They also had a paper called, ‘‘The Jackson Hole Kicker.” This
paper was read at the programs. Each person wrote up the news they
knew and handed it to the secretary. That is the way the people heard
the news throughout the valley.
The second school was held in the winter of 1895. This school was
taught by Mr. Gardner. This school was also a subscription school and
was held in a one-room log cabin, on the John Wilson place.
The third school was held in the first school house (see picture)
built in Jackson Hole. It was built on the Ervin Wilson place. It is
still standing. The teacher was Miss Susie Clark from Idaho Falls,
Idaho. She is now Mrs. Hitt.
Miss Clark taught the first public school in the valley in 1896. Miss
Clark taught a three months’ summer term.
The fourth school was also held in the new school house in the year
of 1897. Miss Florence Yarnell was the teacher.
The fifth school was held in the same school house in the year of
1898. It was taught by Miss Lula Hammond from Blackfoot, Idaho.
Miss Hammond is now Mrs. Frank Tanner.
The sixth school was held in the same year of 1898 — Miss Hammon
teaching during the summer months at South Park and Miss Sarah
Holden from Darby, Idaho taught the three autumn months at Wilson,
Wyoming. The school was held in one room of the E. N. Wilson, or
“Uncle Nick” Wilson home.
The eighth school was taught in 1899 by Miss Murry from Boise,
Idaho, at South Park and Mrs. Florence Horton taught the same year at
Flat Creek school house. It was built up near the Crawford ranch.
It was the second school house in Jackson Hole. Miss Hammond
The ninth school was taught by Mr. Allred at South Park. The
county being short of funds caused this to be a subscription school too.
The school districts were divided into the Wilson, Crovont and Zenith.
The people built school houses of their own.
The tenth school was taught by Miss Galligher in the year of 1901 .
It was held at the old Mart Nelson place, near the central part of die
Jackson school district. The Flat Creek and South Park children at-
The eleventh school (1902) was taught by Miss Gallagher, at South
During the twelfth school year (1903) there were three schools held
in the Jackson school district. Miss Grosh taught at South Park, Miss
Forrester at Flat Creek and Miss Gallagher at Jackson. This was the
first school taught in the town of Jackson. It was held in the Jackson
Club House (1903).
Two boxes were furnished each child (by Charles Deloney’s store),
a large one for a desk and a small one for a chair. The pupils con-
sisted of seventeen boys and eight girls.
The first morning there was a parade starting from Charles De-
loney’s old store. Each child carrying their two boxes. At the last
there was a boy riding a horse and carrying a sack of hay for the horse’s
Mr. Jack Hicks had charge of the Club House and let the school use
it free of charge. That winter was very cold and each family fur-
nished three loads of wood in their turns.
The next term of school (1904) was also held in the Club House.
They used tables and benches for desks and seats. Dr. Melton was the
In 1905 the first log school house was completed in the town of
Jackson. It was built south of where the present school house now
stands. There were about twenty-four pupils. Miss McNish was
The next term of school was held in the log school house, in 1906,
with Miss Tarrgison as teacher. There were about twenty-four pupils.
From 1907 to 1913 schools were held in the same log school house
with the following teachers: Miss Mae Smith (now Mrs. Mae Love-
joy) and Miss Maude Smith teaching during the winter of 1908-09.
During the year of 1910 there were two teachers in the Jackson
school, this being the first year that they had had more than one teacher
for all of the grades. The teachers were Mr. James Williams and Miss
Melisa Smith. After this year they had more teachers as the school
The next year the teachers were: Miss Dayton, Miss Holland, Miss
Mary Mabin, Miss Georgia Ely (now Mrs. Crail). This year there
were two school houses. The one held in the log school house was taught
by Miss Mary Mabin and Miss Georgia Ely taught in the Vogel house.
The first two-story brick school house was built during that term.
There were only four rooms completed.
The next term of school (1914) was held in the new school house.
They had four different rooms. The teachers were Mr. Dere, professor.
He taught the seventh and eighth grades. Mrs. Dere was the fifth and
sixth grade teacher. ‘‘Mitt” Robison was the third and fourth grade
teacher and Georgia Ely was the first and second grade teacher.
The next term of school (1915) was also taught in the new school
house. F. C. Hemphill was principal, also seventh and eighth grade
teacher. A. V. Wilson was the fifth and sixth grade teacher. Chloe
Mahoney, third and fourth grade teacher. Rosemond Fiscus was the first
and second grade teacher.
During this term, on December 10th, the new school house; also the
little log building, caught fire and burned. The rest of the term was
held in the different churches in the town. The high school and seventh
and eighth grades were held in the gymnasium room of the Episcopal
Rest House. The fifth and sixth grades in the Latter-day Saint (Mor-
mon) church. The third, fourth and first and second grades were held
in the Baptist church.
The next term of school (1916) was started in the churches. In the
middle of the term they moved to the present school house. It is made
on the same plan as the other one. There are four rooms up stairs and
four down stairs. They put stoves up in the place of a furnace.
E. N. Moody was the professor. He taught the ninth and tenth
grades in high school. A. V. 'Wilson was the seventh and eighth grade
teacher. Chloe Mahoney fifth and sixth grade teacher. Ann Reid, third
and fourth grade teacher. Rosemond Fiscus, first and second grade
Mr. Hemphill was again principal during the next term of school
(1917). He taught the ninth and tenth grades. Miss Nancy Hemphill
taught the seventh and eighth grades. Miss Phyliss Kimball, the fifth
and sixth. Miss Frances Curtiss, third and fourth grades and Miss
Fostina Forester (now Mrs. D. H. Haight) was the first and second
The next term (1918), Phylliss Kimball was the principal. Miss
Maude Lovejoy assisted with the high school work. Miss Frances
Curtiss was the fifth and sixth grade teacher. Miss Anna Reid (now
Mrs. Hunter) was the third and fourth grade teacher. Miss Rosemond
Fiscus was the first and second grade teacher.
The next term of school (1919), Rev. Nash was principal. He
taught the seventh and eighth grades. There was not a high school this
year as most of the pupils, who were ready for high school, went to out-
side schools. Mrs. James Wilson was the third and fourth grade teach-
er. Mrs. Don Haight was the first and second grade teacher.
The next term of school (1920), Mr. Warren G. Bunn and Miss
Shreaves taught the high school. This was the first year that they had
separate teachers for the high school and elementary school. Mr. Doug-
las Sornsen taught the seventh and eighth grades the first half of the
school year — Mrs. E. P. Ellis finishing the term. Agnes Slacher taught
the fifth and sixth grades. Mrs. Amy Moody taught the third and
fourth grades. Mrs. Saunders was the first and second grade teacher.
The next term of school (1921-22), Mr. John A. Kyle was professor.
Miss Shields helped him teach the high school. Mrs. E. P. Ellis taught
the seventh and eighth grades. Mrs. Amy Moody taught the fifth and
Seventh and Eighth Grades of Jackson Public School and Their Teacher (1923-24)
who collected^ the material and wrote this book.
( Seventh Grade)
Nell Wagner •
Nit A Davis
sixth grades. Miss Martha Maren taught the third and fourth grades.
Mrs. Blaine taught the first and second grades for about three months,
when she was taken sick and soon died. Miss Devero finished the term.
The following year of school (1923-24), Mr. John A. Kyle was the
professor. Miss Winterfield assisted in teaching the high school. Mrs.
Amy Moody taught the seventh and eighth grades. Miss Florence C.
James taught the fifth and sixth grades. Miss Mamie Burkland was the
third and fourth grade teacher. Miss Peggie McNight (now Mrs. John A.
Kyle) was the hrst and second grade teacher.
The present term of school started in September, 1923 and will end
May 23, 1924.
Mr. J. W. Harp is the superintendent. E. 0. Baird and Miss Daisy
Berg were employed as teachers in the Jackson-Wilson High School,
Miss Lillian Swanson took her place after the holidays. Mr. Roland
W. Brown, Jr., is seventh and eighth grade teacher. Mr. Brown was
appointed “Health Crusade Director” of Jackson by the State Depart-
ment. Mr. Terry P. Kelly is fifth and sixth grade teacher. Miss Belle
Yarbrough, third and fourth grade teacher. Miss Dena Knudson hrst
and second grade teacher.
This is the hrst year that the Jackson-Wilson High School has been
an accredited high school.
There are thirty-two students enrolled in the high school at present
and ninety-four in the elementary school.
The Jackson Parent-Teacher Association was organized about three
years ago. During its meeting held March 7, 1924 (Roland W. Brown,
Jr., chairman) a discussion was conducted by Superintendent J. W.
Harp, which resulted in plans being made to build a new gymnasium on
the block of ground given to the school by Mr. R. E. Miller.
On March 15th, 16th, and 17th practically all of the men and boys
of Jackson volunteered to get material for a “gym.” Some went up
Cache creek with teams to get out the timber while others went down to
Snake river to haul gravel for the foundation. The ladies furnished
dinner each day for the workers.
A splendid community spirit and the co-operation of all the people
has been shown in the project of building a much needed gymnasium.
Besides the school at Jackson there are the following schools in
the valley: South Park, Flat Creek, Kelly, Zenith, Grovont, Wilson,
Buffalo, Spread Creek, Teton, Hoback, Porcupine, Elk and Moran.
These are all of the schools in Teton County with the exception ol
the one at Alta, Wyoming, in Teton Valley.
Mrs. Eva Lucas is County Su})erintendent of Schools of Teton
County in Wyoming.
Page Thirty -nine
>4 <;» V^
YELLOWSTONE j NATIONAL
"' ■' %!
. y7rr0 Vi
-.V y J
m J k *
3T^ / Gr^t)^
^ v=> — >" —
l'^ • . X
/m . Tj
/- ''/' — 7"*“^ —
4 e/tr^/p r^»T
-< PK. /
tWadman , _